Augustus II the Strong, elector of Saxony and another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] gained the Polish crown after the death of King John III Sobieski in 1696. Ivan Mazepa was a Ukrainian Cossack hetman who fought for Russia but defected to Charles XII in 1708. , After the failure of 1712, Peter the Great ordered that further campaigns in war-ravaged regions of Finland with poor transportation networks were to be performed along the coastline and the seaways near the coast. They met stubborn resistance, ran out of supplies and, after reaching the Gulf of Finland west of Kronstadt, had to be evacuated by sea between 10 and 17 October.  Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. The troops, who arrived on 12 October, therefore had to abandon the siege after only a few days. As negotiations for peace did not progress, the Russian galleys were once again sent to raid the Swedish coast in 1721, targeting primarily the Swedish coast between Gävle and Piteå. Teemu Keskisarja (2019). In Sweden, the absolute monarchy had come to an end with the death of Charles XII, and Sweden's Age of Liberty began.. These victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size, was far more professional than most continental armies, and also to a modernization of administration (both civilian and military) in the course of the 17th century, which enabled the monarchy to harness the resources of the country and its empire in an effective way. Russian fortunes began to reverse in the final years of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Great, who looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence. The Gottorp party succumbed and Ulrike Eleonora, wife of Frederick I, transferred power to her husband in May 1720. http://bit.ly/ExtraStoreSubscribe for new episodes every Saturday! Since the Russian galley fleet was not able to raid the Swedish coast, with the exception of Umeå, which was plundered on 18 September, the fleet instead supported the advance of the Russian army, which led to hastily withdrawal by the Swedish army from Raahe (Brahestad) to Tornio (Torneå). However, Peter managed to negotiate a retreat, making a few territorial concessions and promising to withdraw his forces from the Holy Roman Empire as well as allowing Charles's return to Sweden. , By the time of Charles XII's death, the anti-Swedish allies became increasingly divided on how to fill the power gap left behind by the defeated and retreating Swedish armies. Peter I took advantage of this by redeploying a large number of men from Ingria to Ukraine.. This resulted in Great Britain declaring war on Sweden in 1717.  Instead he initiated a march from Saxony to invade Russia. Swedish and British fleets, now allied with Sweden, sailing from the west coast of Sweden but failed to catch the raiders.  Simultaneously, Augustus II's forces advanced through Swedish Livonia, captured Dünamünde and laid siege to Riga. One group headed for the coast of Uppland, the second to the vicinity of Stockholm, and the last to coast of Södermanland. Finland was returned to Sweden, while the majority of Russia's conquests (Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm and the bulk of Karelia) were ceded to the tsardom. This shattering defeat in 1709 did not end the war, although it decided it. In November, the Russian and Swedish armies met at the First Battle of Narva where the Russians suffered a crushing defeat.. Peter I tried to raise his army's morale to Swedish levels. Vyborg) in 1710 and successfully held it against Swedish attempts to retake the town in 1711. After years of marches and fighting around Poland he finally had to invade Augustus' hereditary Saxony to take him out of the war. Russia left Poland in the spring of 1706, abandoning artillery but escaping from the pursuing Swedes, who stopped at Pinsk. He greatly expanded the size of Russia during his reign while providing access to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas. The formal conclusion of the Great Northern War came with the Swedish-Hanoverian and Swedish-Prussian Treaties of Stockholm (1719), the Dano-Swedish Treaty of Frederiksborg (1720), and the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad (1721). "Poltava: The battle that changed the world. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter the Great of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony-Poland-Lithuania. It was only on 12 May that Swedish squadron under Admiral Erik Johan Lillie made it to Helsinki but there was nothing it could do. After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition revived and subsequently Hanover and Prussia joined it. He was succeeded by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. The Great Northern War was a profound event in European history and has had far too little attention in the English speaking world. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was formally neutral at this point, as Augustus started the war as an Elector of Saxony. Sweden parried the Danish and Russian attacks at Travendal (August 1700) and Narva (November 1700) respectively, and in a counter-offensive pushed Augustus II's forces through the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to Saxony, dethroning Augustus on the way (September 1706) and forcing him to acknowledge defeat in the Treaty of Altranstädt (October 1706). When his army surrendered, Charles XII of Sweden and a few soldiers escaped to Ottoman territory, founding a colony in front of Bender, Moldova. The Ottoman Empire defeated the Russian-Moldavian army in the Pruth River Campaign, but that peace treaty was in the end without great consequence to Russia's position. Pitirim Sorokin "Social and Cultural Dynamics, vol.3", Richard Brzezinski. A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, David R. Stone. Before going to war, Peter had made preparations for a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms. The Great Northern War (22 February 1700-10 September 1721) was a conflict in which a Russian-led coalition successfully contested the supremacy of Sweden in Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe.The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, and Russia became the new dominant power in the Baltics and as a major force in European politics. On 12 May 1708, a Russian galley fleet made a lightning raid on Borgå and managed to return to Kronslot just one day before the Swedish battle fleet returned to the blockade, after being delayed by unfavourable winds. These terms were laid out in the Treaty of Adrianople (1713). Charles XII then turned south to meet Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Could Sweden have won the Great Northern War? Frederik IV of Denmark–Norway directed his first attack against Sweden's ally Holstein-Gottorp. Later in the autumn Peter I led an army of 20,000 men in an attempt to take the Swedish town and fortress of Viborg. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts He preferred the life of an ordinary soldier on horseback, not that of contemporary baroque courts. This surprise move and pressure by the Maritime Powers (England and the Dutch Republic) forced Denmark–Norway to withdraw from the war in August 1700 according to the terms of the Peace of Travendal. By 1707 this number had swollen to at least 120,000 despite casualties. This successful invasion enabled Charles XII to dethrone Augustus II and coerce the Polish sejm to replace him with Stanisław I Leszczyński in 1704. In the Treaty of Hanover (1710), Hanover, whose elector was to become George I of Great Britain, allied with Russia.  Nominally under the command of Apraksin, but accompanied Peter the Great, a fleet of coastal ships together with 12,000 men – infantry and artillery – began the campaign by sailing from Kronstadt on 2 May 1713; a further 4,000 cavalry were later sent overland to join with the army. While the result of the battle is contested, it ended Russian galley raids in 1720. Therefore, the war was finally concluded by the Treaty of Nystad between Russia and Sweden in Uusikaupunki (Nystad) on 30 August 1721 (OS). His ambitions to transform the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into an absolute monarchy were not realized due to the zealous nature of the Polish nobility and the previously initiated laws that decreased the power of the monarch. Frederick William I entered the war as elector of Brandenburg and king in Prussia – the royal title had been secured in 1701. The Norwegian campaigns were halted and the army withdrawn when Charles XII was shot dead while besieging Norwegian Fredriksten on 30 November 1718 (OS). Disregarding Polish negotiation proposals supported by the Swedish parliament, Charles crossed into the Commonwealth and decisively defeated the Saxe-Polish forces in the Battle of Klissow in 1702 and in the Battle of Pultusk in 1703.  Charles was then at war with much of Northern Europe, and Stralsund was doomed. in J.S. A smaller Russian force advanced on the Swedish capital but was stopped at the battle of Stäket on 13 August. Yet the town could not be taken due to the arrival of a Swedish relief army, led by general Magnus Stenbock, which secured the Pomeranian pocket before turning west to defeat an allied army in the Battle of Gadebusch. The remaining Swedish forces in plague-stricken areas south and east of the Baltic Sea were evicted, with the last city, Riga, falling in 1710. The Great Migration. pp. Danish force", The Northern War of 1700–1721. Russia was able to mobilize a larger army but could not put all of it into action simultaneously. ( 1964-11-22) The Great War is a 26-episode documentary series from 1964 on the First World War. , After the treaty of Frederiksborg in early 1720, Sweden was no longer at war with Denmark, which allowed more forces to be placed against the Russians. Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway, another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] succeeded Christian V in 1699 and continued his anti-Swedish policies. In view of continued failure to check Russian consolidation, and with declining manpower, Sweden opted to blockade Saint Petersburg in 1705. This did not prevent Russian galleys from raiding the town of Umeå once again. , In 1714, Charles XII returned from the Ottoman Empire, arriving in Stralsund in November. p. 244. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. The documentary was a co-production of the Imperial War Museum, the British Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Broadcasting Commission. The cost of the warfare proved to be much higher than the occupied countries could fund, and Sweden's coffers and resources in manpower were eventually drained in the course of long conflicts. In the late 1690s, the adventurer Johann Patkul managed to ally Russia with Denmark and Saxony by the secret Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye, and in 1700 the three powers attacked. A Drama of the Great Northern War by John Dalmas a novelized documentary 120,000 words copyright 2010 John Dalmas 6011 O'Sweeney Lane Dublin OH 43016-4221 [email protected]
www.johndalmas.com Dec 2010 The coalition members partitioned most of the Swedish dominions among themselves, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. Charles XII of Sweden[nb 1] succeeded Charles XI of Sweden in 1697, aged 14. The Great War is a 26-episode documentary series from 1964 on the First World War.  August II resisted, still possessing control of his native Saxony, but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Fraustadt in 1706, a battle sometimes compared to the Ancient Battle of Cannae due to the Swedish forces' use of double envelopment, with a deadly result for the Saxon army. George I and Frederik IV both coveted hegemony in northern Germany, while Augustus the Strong was concerned about the ambitions of Frederick William I on the southeastern Baltic coast. This also severed the contact between Swedish fleet and ground forces and prevented Swedish naval units from supplying it. On 21–22 May 1713 a Russian force of 10,000 men landed at Pernå (Pernaja) and constructed fortifications there. In the summer of 1706, Swedish General Georg Johan Maidel crossed the Neva with 4,000 troops and defeated an opposing Russian force, but made no move on Saint Petersburg. http://bit.ly/WatchEXP___________Thanks for participating in this week's discussion! B Beside Peter, the principal Russian commanders were Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev. See more ideas about war, northern, swedish army. Swedish allies included Holstein-Gottorp, several Polish magnates under Stanisław I Leszczyński (1704–1710) and Cossacks under the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1708–1710). Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended in 1709 with the destruction of the main Swedish army at the decisive Battle of Poltava (in present-day Ukraine) and Charles' exile in the Ottoman town of Bender. George I of the House of Hanover, elector of Hanover and, since 1714, king of Great Britain and of Ireland, took the opportunity to connect his landlocked German electorate to the North Sea. The Great Northern War was fought between Sweden’s Charles XII and a coalition lead by Peter the Great.By the end of the war, Sweden had lost her supremacy as the leading power in the Baltic region and was replaced by Peter the Great… Great Northern War is part of WikiProject Estonia, a project to maintain and expand Estonia-related subjects on Wikipedia. The Battle of Narva dealt a severe setback to Peter the Great, but the shift of Charles XII's army to the Polish-Saxon threat soon afterward provided him with an opportunity to regroup and regain territory in the Baltic provinces. By these treaties Sweden ceded her exemption from the Sound Dues and lost the Baltic provinces and the southern part of Swedish Pomerania. In 1700 which power was the Together they carried a landing force of nearly 30,000 men. George I of Great Britain and the Electorate of Hanover joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715. However, bad roads proved impassable to his heavy siege guns.  The Swedes attempted a raid on the Neva fort on 13 July 1704 with ships and landing armies, but the Russian fortifications held. Swedish General Georg Henrik Lybecker chose not to face the Russians with his 7,500 men in the prepared positions close to Vyborg and instead withdrew west of Kymijoki river using scorched earth tactics. The Swedish navy was able to outmaneuver the Danish Sound blockade and deploy an army near the Danish capital, Copenhagen. Catch the Series Premiere on Sunday, February 14 at 8:30/7:30c on FOX! , Charles XII of Sweden first focused on attacking Denmark. James answers questions from our Patreon supporters in this special edition of Lies!Support us on Patreon!  Swedish efforts to maintain their defences were greatly hampered by the drain of manpower by the continental army and various garrisons around the Baltic Sea as well as by the plague outbreak that struck Finland and Sweden between 1710 and 1713, which devastated the land killing, amongst others, over half of the population of Helsingfors (Helsinki). Votes: 598 Biopic of Peter I, Czar of Russia, from childhood in 1682 to the Great Northern War against Sweden during the 1700s. After the dissolution of the first coalition through the peace of Travendal and with the victory at Narva; the Swedish chancellor, Benedict Oxenstjerna, attempted to use the bidding for the favour of Sweden by France and the Maritime Powers (then on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession) to end the war and make Charles an arbiter of Europe. The Great Northern War was fought during the years 1700-1721 between Sweden and a coalition of countries who sought to carve up the Swedish Baltic Sea Empire between themselves. Osprey Publishing, 2001. p. 19, Petersen (2007), pp. Between the years of 1560 and 1658, Sweden created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. Great Northern War. Russian cavalry managed to link up with the rest of the army there as well. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Charles was then confined at Timurtash and Demotika; later he abandoned his hopes for an Ottoman front and returned to Sweden in a 14-day ride. Hanover gained Swedish Bremen-Verden, while Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated southern Swedish Pomerania. His meeting with Peter the Great in Rawa Ruska in September 1698, where the plans to attack Sweden were made, became legendary for its decadence.  When the main army turned south to recover in Ukraine, the second army with supplies and reinforcements was intercepted and routed at Lesnaya—and so were the supplies and reinforcements of Swedish ally Ivan Mazepa in Baturyn. Sweden defeated the Danish invaders at the Battle of Helsingborg (1710). If you never heard of the great Northern war here's a 7 part documentary series on it Extra History: The Great Northern War: So let's just say that … Press J to jump to the feed. Peter I demanded Charles's eviction, and when the sultan refused, Peter decided to force it by invading the Ottoman Empire. Conflict between mainly the Swedish and Russian empires in 1700–1721, This article is about the 18th-century war.  In the treaty of Altranstädt (1706), Augustus was finally forced to step down from the Polish throne, but Charles had already lost the valuable advantage of time over his main enemy in the east, Peter I, who then had the time to recover and build up an army that was both new and better. The Ottoman Empire temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden and intervened against Peter I. , In 1714 far greater Swedish naval assets were diverted towards Finland, which managed to cut the coastal sea route past Hangö cape already in early May 1714. In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga, at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Tsardom by the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia. Though his primary goal was Moscow, the strength of his forces was sapped by the cold weather (the winter of 1708/09 being one of the most severe in modern European history) and Peter's use of scorched earth tactics. In 1713, Brandenburg-Prussia allied with Russia in the Treaty of Schwedt. Was Charles XII actually assassinated? In addition to the rivalries in the anti-Swedish coalition, there was an inner-Swedish rivalry between Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, and Frederick I of Hesse-Cassel for the Swedish throne. He claimed the throne upon Charles XII's death in 1718, but was supplanted by Ulrike Eleonora. 393ff, 409ff, 420–445, had the king arrested in what became known as the "kalabalik", Treaties of Stockholm (Great Northern War), Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, "Tacitus.nu, Örjan Martinsson. Peter the Great became Tsar in 1682 upon the death of his elder brother Feodor but did not become the actual ruler until 1689. In 1700, Charles XII had a standing army of 77,000 men (based on annual training). When Wismar surrendered in 1716, all of Sweden's Baltic and German possessions were lost. During the war, the most important Swedish commanders besides Charles XII were his close friend Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, also Magnus Stenbock and Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt. Campaign from Grodno to Poltava 1706–1709, Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis, First Mongol invasion of Poland (1240/41), Second Mongol invasion of Poland (1259/60), Third Mongol invasion of Poland (1287/88), Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1512–1522), Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1534–1537), Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689), Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Northern_War&oldid=1002113636, Wars involving the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Wars involving the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 175,000 killed by famine, disease and exhaustion, 30,000 Russians killed, wounded and captured in combat, 110,000 killed by famine, disease and exhaustion, 14,000–20,000 Poles, Saxons and 8,000 Danes killed in the larger battles. These became known as Kronstadt and Kronslot. By 1704, other fortresses were situated on the island of Kotlin and the sand flats to its south. , Saxe-Poland-Lithuania and Sweden did not conclude a formal peace treaty; instead, they renewed the Peace of Oliva that had ended the Second Northern War in 1660.. Before the Civil War, the vast majority (approximately 90 percent) of African Americans lived in the South. With Nick Offerman, Jenny Slate, Will Forte, Dulcé Sloan. A major attack on 15 July 1705 ended in the deaths of more than 500 Swedish men, or a third of its forces. The negotiations were mediated by French diplomats, who sought to prevent a complete collapse of Sweden's position on the southern Baltic coast and assured that Sweden was to retain Wismar and northern Swedish Pomerania. Apraksin's forces reached the river but chose not to cross it and instead withdrew back to Vyborg, likely due to problems in supply. 57. In 1697, Sweden was a great power until Charles XI died; he left the entire empire in the hands of his 14-year-old son, Charles XII. Lybecker's army of 7000 infantry and 3000 cavalry avoided contact with the Russians and instead kept withdrawing further inland without even contesting the control of Borgå region or the important coastal road between Helsinki (Helsingfors) and Turku (Åbo).  In 1712 the first Russian campaign to capture Finland began under the command of General Admiral Fyodor Apraksin. Poland and Saxony together could mobilize at least 100,000 men. We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh__________Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweetFollow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPageGet our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator____________♪ Get the intro music here!http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H♫ Get the background music here!The Land of Vana'diel (Album): http://bit.ly/1t2OT9L *Music by Tweex♪ Get the outro music here!http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm There, under protection of the Russian battlefleet, the Russian galley fleet was split into three groups. However, like so often, Swedish naval units arrived only after the initial Russian spring campaign had ended. Under his command the Swedish army in Finland stopped to engage the advancing Russians at Pälkäne in October 1713, where a Russian flanking manoeuvre forced him to withdraw to avoid getting encircled. Together with rowers from the ships the Russians had 20,000 men at their disposal even without the cavalry. At the same time, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet had also set course towards Denmark. The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and as a new major force in European politics. Sep 20, 2015 - Explore Kaptain Kobold's board "Great Northern War" on Pinterest. He was not able to keep northern Swedish Pomerania, Danish from 1712 to 1715. Russia captured Viborg (ru. He commenced reforming the country, turning the Russian tsardom into a modernized empire relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy. , After Charles XII had returned from the Ottoman Empire and resumed personal control of the war effort, he initiated two Norwegian Campaigns, starting in February 1716, to force Denmark–Norway into a separate peace treaty. George I of Great Britain and Hanover concluded three alliances in 1715: the Treaty of Berlin with Denmark–Norway, the Treaty of Stettin with Brandenburg-Prussia, and the Treaty of Greifswald with Russia. The treaty also secured the extradition and execution of Johann Reinhold Patkul, architect of the alliance seven years earlier. In nearby Greifswald, already lost to Sweden, Russian tsar Peter the Great and British king George I, in his position as Elector of Hanover, had just signed an alliance on 17 (OS)/28 (NS) October. Sweden had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century and ceased to be a major power. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. Over 11,000 men were evacuated but more than 5000 horses were slaughtered, which crippled the mobility and offensive capability of the Swedish army in Finland for several years. , After the death of Charles XII, Sweden still refused to make peace with Russia on Peter's terms. The occupation period of Finland in 1714–1721 is known as the Greater Wrath. The defenders, however, managed to fend off landing attempts by the attackers until the Russians landed at their flank at Sandviken, which forced Armfelt to retire towards Porvoo (Borgå) after setting afire both the town and all the supplies stored there as well as bridges leading north from the town. As a scholar he specializes in everyday life of the Russian army, its uniforms, tactics and siege warfare of the Great Northern war period. Russia gained its Baltic territories and became one of the greatest powers in Europe. The armies met again later at Napue in February 1714, where the Russians won a decisive victory. In 1711, siege was laid to Stralsund. The transport's varied career took another turn when she was acquired by the Navy from the War Department 3 August 1921. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Charles XII opened up a Norwegian front but was killed in Fredriksten in 1718. A grand mobilization covering Russia's vast territories would have been unrealistic. 268–272, 275; Bengtsson (1960), pp. At this point, in 1707, Peter offered to return everything he had so far occupied (essentially Ingria) except Saint Petersburg and the line of the Neva, to avoid a full-scale war, but Charles XII refused. In March 1700, a Danish army laid siege to Tönning. Charles XI had tried to keep the empire out of wars, and concentrated on inner reforms such as reduction and allotment, which had strengthened the monarch's status and the empire's military abilities. In January 1719, George I, Augustus and emperor Charles VI concluded a treaty in Vienna aimed at reducing Russia's frontiers to the pre-war limits. 22 November 1964. The Russian army occupied Finland mostly in 1713–1714, capturing Åland from where the population had already fled to Sweden on 13 August 1714. The Great Northern War lasted from 1700 to 1721. 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